For instance, some 11th-century Jews from Kievan Rus participated in an anti- Karaite assembly held in either Thessaloniki or Constantinople. From the second part of the 14th century, they were subjects of the Polish kings , and magnates. Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , History of the Jews in Poland , and Lithuanian Jews From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century through the creation of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in , Poland was considered one of the most diverse countries in Europe. It became home to one of the world’s largest and most vibrant Jewish communities. The Jewish community in the territory of Ukraine-proper during the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth became one of the largest and most important ethnic minority groups in Ukraine. Khmelnytsky Uprising The Ukrainian Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky led a Cossack uprising , known as Khmelnytsky Uprising — , under the premise that the Poles had sold them as slaves “into the hands of the accursed Jews. Recent estimates range from fifteen thousand to thirty thousand Jews killed or taken captive, and Jewish communities totally destroyed. Ukrainian folk art, 19th century The Cossack Uprising and the Deluge left a deep and lasting impression on the Jewish social and spiritual life. The rise of Hasidism had a great influence on the rise of Haredi Judaism , with a continuous influence through its many Hasidic dynasties.
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The Odessa Catacombs Sunday 20 October Now offering tours here Stretching to an estimated total length of 2, km, the Odessa Catacombs are perhaps the largest network of tunnels anywhere in the world. I decided to shun the official tour of the catacombs, which is strictly limited to a kilometre-or-so of safe, well-lit tunnels. Instead I found myself an unofficial guide, and made arrangements to be led on an extended trek into one of the deepest, darkest places on earth.
I arrived at Odessa by train; crossing into Ukraine after my week in the unrecognised socialist republic of Transnistria. Before any of that though, I was dying for a chance to look at the Odessa Catacombs. The oldest tunnels here are believed to date back as early as the 17th century, if not before. Created as an extension to natural cavities beneath the ground, the first man-made passages were used by smugglers, as well as being a source for construction materials.
History of the Jews in Ukraine
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With the development of internet-based technology dating in Odessa has acquired a new meaning. Now you can meet a boy or a girl not only on Deribasovskaya street or at the market Privoz. Today you can find numerous dating websites with hundreds of millions of registered users.
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Share via Email A woman walks by a shop window displaying wedding gowns in Kiev, Ukraine. After the annexation of Crimea, pro-Russian forces are stirring tension in this Black Sea port, and there are weekly standoffs between demonstrators who want to be part of Ukraine and those who want closer ties to Russia. But for all the political and economic chaos that has engulfed Ukraine in the past three months, one industry is still thriving: The economies of several Ukrainian cities are boosted by the surreal and disingenuous online bride business, and Odessa is the biggest hub.
It does not take long for a visitor to the city to stumble upon an “international date” — there are legions of western men in town meeting with young women they have met online, usually with the conversation facilitated by a translator. At internet cafes and homes across the city, thousands of women spend hours each day chatting to prospective suitors online. There is nothing like the prospect of economic hardship to facilitate intercontinental liaisons, and so, far from business drying up in recent months, the romance and “bride” trade is booming.
If anything, there are now more western men planning trips to Odessa than there were last year, when I accompanied a “romance tour” to Ukraine for a magazine story. I spent a week in Odessa with 29 men, all of them hoping to find a wife during their trip. They were mainly Americans, but there were also Brits, an Italian and a Saudi on the tour. It has thousands of women in Ukraine and across the world on its books, available for chats and in-person meetings with lonely bachelors across the world looking for a wife.
As internet dating has gone mainstream over the past decade, Anastasia is attempting to rebrand what was once called the “mail-order bride” industry as something modern and progressive. This is no longer the preserve of seedy and exploitative men seeking vulnerable women from impoverished backgrounds to work as a longterm sex slave, the marketing suggests. This is “international dating“, a civilised way to find romance without borders.
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Bulk properties[ edit ] Thorium is a moderately soft , paramagnetic , bright silvery radioactive actinide metal. In the periodic table , it lies to the right of actinium , to the left of protactinium , and below cerium. Pure thorium is very ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled , swaged , and drawn. Aluminium ‘s is In the beginning of period 7 , from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase as in other periods , because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four.
After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium , where the number of f electrons increases from about 0. The major impurity is usually thorium dioxide ThO2 ; even the purest thorium specimens usually contain about a tenth of a percent of the dioxide. Addition of small proportions of thorium improves the mechanical strength of magnesium , and thorium-aluminium alloys have been considered as a way to store thorium in proposed future thorium nuclear reactors.
Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium. Isotopes of thorium All but two elements up to bismuth element 83 have an isotope that is practically stable for all purposes “classically stable” , with the exceptions being technetium and promethium elements 43 and All elements from polonium element 84 onward are measurably radioactive.
Four-fifths of the thorium present at Earth’s formation has survived to the present.
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